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Use the dictionary below to get more knowledge about Substances.
A chronic, relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain.
Stimulant drugs whose effects are very similar to cocaine. Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and their various salts are collectively referred to as amphetamines. In fact, their chemical properties and actions are so similar that even experienced users have difficulty knowing which drug they have taken. Methamphetamine is the most commonly abused.
A group of medications that reduce pain. Some of these medicines are also used just before or during an operation to help the anesthetic work better. Codeine and hydrocodone are also used to relieve coughing. Methadone is also used to help some people control their dependence on heroin or other narcotics. These medicines are available only with your medical doctor’s or dentist’s prescription.
Drugs that fall under the depressant category and are used medicinally to relieve anxiety, irritability, and tension. They have a high potential for abuse and development of tolerance. Depressants produce a state of intoxication similar to that of alcohol. When combined with alcohol, the effects are increased and risks are multiplied. Other drugs that fall under the depressant category include methaqualone, tranquilizers, and chloral hydrate.
Poor quality methamphetamine; methamphetamine produced in bathtubs.
Marijuana; opium; methamphetamine.
Small, mobile, labs used to produce methamphetamine
Marijuana; heroin; methamphetamine
Chemicals that help control mental and physical processes when produced naturally by the body and that produce intoxication and other effects when absorbed from marijuana. There are also now synthetic cannabinoids.
The botanical name for the plant from which marijuana comes.
Crack Cocaine; amphetamine; methamphetamine
A wide variety of drugs being used at dance clubs, bars, and all-night dance parties (“trances” or “raves”). Because many of these drugs are colorless, tasteless, and odorless, they can be secretly added to beverages by individuals who want to intoxicate or sedate others. The most widely used club drugs are; ecstasy, rohypnol, ketamine, GHB, and LSD. Research has shown that club drugs can have long-lasting negative effects on the brain, especially on memory function and motor skills. When club drugs are combined with alcohol, the effect is intensified, and they become even more dangerous and potentially fatal.
A powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. Cocaine has been labeled the drug of the 1980s and ’90s, because of its extensive popularity and use during this period. It is one of the oldest known drugs. The pure chemical, cocaine hydrochloride, has been an abused substance for more than 100 years, and coca leaves, the source of cocaine, have been ingested for thousands of years. There are basically two chemical forms of cocaine: the hydrochloride salt and the “freebase”. The hydrochloride salt, or powdered form of cocaine, dissolves in water and, when abused, can be taken intravenously (by vein) or intranasally (in the nose). Freebase refers to a compound that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride salt. The freebase form of cocaine is smokable. Cocaine is generally sold on the street as a fine, white, crystalline powder, known as “coke,” “C,” “snow,” “flake,” or “blow.” Street dealers generally dilute it with such inert substances as cornstarch, talcum powder, and/or sugar, or with such active drugs as procaine (a chemically-related local anesthetic) or with such other stimulants as amphetamines.
Heroin; amphetamine; hypodermic needle; methamphetamine
Drugs that cause hallucinations – profound distortions in a person’s perceptions of reality. Under the influence of hallucinogens, people see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that seem real but do not exist. Some hallucinogens also produce rapid, intense emotional swings. Hallucinogens cause their effects by disrupting the interaction of nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin. Distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, the serotonin system is involved in the control of behavioral, perceptual, and regulatory systems, including mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception. LSD is the drug most commonly identified with the term “hallucinogen” and the most widely used in this class of drugs. It is considered the typical hallucinogen.
A highly addictive drug, and its use is a serious problem in America. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder. Street names for heroin include “smack,” “H,” “skag,” and “junk.” Other names may refer to types of heroin produced in a specific geographical area, such as “Mexican black tar.”
Amphetamine; high quality methamphetamine; marijuana; methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); marijuana grown in water (hydroponic)
Cocaine; crack cocaine; smokable methamphetamine; methamphetamine; methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); phencyclidine (PCP)
Breathable chemical vapors that produce psychoactive (mind-altering) effects. Inhalants fall into the following categories: Solvents: Industrial or household solvents or solvent-containing products, including paint thinners or solvents, degreasers (dry- cleaning fluids), gasoline, and glues, Art or office supply solvents: including correction fluids, felt-tip-marker fluid, and electronic contact cleaners. Gases: Gases used in household or commercial products, including butane lighters and propane tanks, whipping cream aerosols or dispensers (whippets), and refrigerant gases. Household aerosol propellants and associated solvents: items such as spray paints, hair or deodorant sprays, and fabric protector sprays. Medical anesthetic gases: such as ether, chloroform, halothane, and nitrous oxide (laughing gas) Nitrites: aliphatic nitrites, including cyclohexyl nitrite, which is available to the general public; amyl nitrite, which is available only by prescription; and butyl nitrite, which is now an illegal substance.
The act of administering a drug or combination of drugs by nasal or oral respiration. Also, the act of drawing air or other substances into the lungs. Nicotine in tobacco smoke enters the body by inhalation.
A method of administering a substance such as a drug into the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, blood vessels, or body cavities, usually by means of a needle.
A central nervous system depressant that produces a rapid-acting dissociative effect. Ketamine is often mistaken for cocaine or crystal methamphetamine because of a similarity in appearance (NCADI, 2000). Also known as K, Special K, Vitamin K, Kit Kat, Keller, Super Acid, and Super C, Ketamine is available in tablet, powder, and liquid form. The drug is so powerful that when injected, there is a risk of losing motor control before the injection is completed. In powder form, the drug can be snorted or sprinkled on tobacco or marijuana and smoked (Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 2000). The effects of Ketamine last from 1 to 6 hours, and it is usually 24-48 hours before the user feels completely “normal” again.
Open scabs and skin lesions due to methamphetamine abuse
An hallucinogenic drug that acts on the serotonin receptor. It is manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. LSD, commonly referred to as “acid,” is sold on the street in tablets, capsules, and, occasionally, liquid form. It is odorless, colorless, and has a slightly bitter taste and is usually taken by mouth. Often LSD is added to absorbent paper, such as blotter paper, and divided into small decorated squares, with each square representing one dose.
A green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of a plant. You may hear marijuana called by street names such as pot, herb, weed, grass, boom, Mary Jane, gangster, or chronic. There are more than 200 slang terms for marijuana. Sinsemilla (sin-seh-me-yah; it’s a Spanish word), hashish (“hash” for short), and hash oil are stronger forms of marijuana. All forms of marijuana are mind-altering. In other words, they change how the brain works. They all contain THC (delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol), the main active chemical in marijuana. They also contain more than 400 other chemicals. Marijuana’s effects on the user depend on the strength or potency of the THC it contains.
A drug that is used to treat an illness or disease according to established medical guidelines.
Methamphetamine combined with heroin
A powerfully addictive stimulant that dramatically affects the central nervous system. Methamphetamine is commonly known as “speed,” “meth,” and “chalk.” In its smoked form, it is often referred to as “ice,” “crystal,” “crank,” and “glass.” It is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. The drug was developed early in this century from its parent drug, amphetamine, and was used originally in nasal decongestants and bronchial inhalers. Methamphetamine’s chemical structure is similar to that of amphetamine, but it has more pronounced effects on the central nervous system. The effects of methamphetamine can last 6 to 8 hours. After the initial “rush,” there is typically a state of high agitation that in some individuals can lead to violent behavior.
One of the most heavily used addictive drugs in the United States. Cigarette smoking has been the most popular method of taking nicotine since the beginning of the 20th century. In 1989, the U.S. Surgeon General issued a report that concluded that cigarettes and other forms of tobacco, such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and chewing tobacco, are addictive and that nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes addiction. In addition, the report determined that smoking was a major cause of stroke and the third leading cause of death in the United States.
Also known as “narcotic analgesics”. Concern about the abuse of prescription painkillers has risen dramatically in the U.S. Of particular concern is the abuse of pain medications containing opiates, marketed under such brand names as Vicodin, OxyContin, Percocet, Demerol, and Darvon.
Is a tranquilizer about ten times more potent than Valium. The drug is available as a white or olive-green pill and is usually sold in the manufacturer’s bubble packaging. Users crush the pills and snort the powder, sprinkle it on marijuana and smoke it, dissolve it in a drink or inject it. Rohypnol has been used to commit sexual assaults because it renders the victim incapable of resisting, giving it the reputation of a “date-rape” drug.